Articolo N. 148
As usual, we are going to explore some new facets in the secret building of the earth. Today I want to consider the mantle and we will arrive to understand that pillars to sustain it are needed. Till now I have discussed the liquid layer science names, in a globe reference system, external nucleus. In a flat Earth model, I guess this layer to be full of salted water. The internal nucleus is a solid basin made of magnetite. It generates the permanent magnetic field on the basis of the total magnetic field of the Earth. Being the so-called “external nucleus” a flat layer filled with water, the temperature of the basin stays under the Curie value. The Curie temperature would invalidate the purpose of describing both the Earth and its magnetic field, which is so important in the structure of our cosmos.
A layer upon the deep abyss of waters
I would like to show how powerful is the influence of the mantle in establishing the shape of the magnetic field of the Earth. I’ll start by considering what mainstream science has to say about the mantle. Wikipedia states that the mantle is one of the concentric casings of the Earth. I’d like to suggest that it is not a casing but a layer staying upon the big abyss of waters. It is a solid layer with very high viscosity standing between the crust and the nucleus. The mantle, states Wikipedia, has a width of about 2890 km. They receive this datum from seismography.
The upper and lower limits of the mantle
Rocks inside the mantle are full of iron and magnesium. Its upper limit, where the mantle touches the crust, is 10 to 35 km deep from the surface. This limit is called Mohorovicic discontinuity, shortened Moho. The lower limit, the frontier with the nucleus, is called Gutemberg discontinuity.
The usual repetition of Demlo numbers
In my flat Earth model measures are always well chosen, not random. Till now I always suggested a scheme in which the measuring unit 111 km is constantly repeated. Please consider the mantle. According to seismography, there should be a layer 2890 km deep set under a crust less than 100 km thick. You could easily imagine that the mantle should be 3330 km thick, but the crust 33 km. We have to remember that reality can be described by the aid of fractals. The first major fractal values carry a general idea of reality. A more precise value, when not expressed in a fractal, does not describe so exactly the nature of reality. The fractal series that can describe the mantle could be:
Dividing the mantle into two different parts
Then seismography keeps on further dividing the mantle into two different parts. This is due to the different propagation speeds of the waves through it. There is a superior mantle thick 700 km through which waves move slowly. Then there is a lower mantle more than 2000 km thick, through which waves move faster. This datum can help us to understand that the simplified standard scientific model is not correct. According to it, temperatures grow with depth. Going to deep layers should become more and more fluid. Anyway, we realize that waves move much slower on the surface. This is an evidence proving that the mantle is much more plastic in its upper part.
The golden section and the fractal hypothesis
Consider the following curiosity, for it could confirm a fractal description of the mantle. Let’s take the total thickness indicated above: 2960 km from the surface to the Gutemberg discontinuity. The first part of the mantle considered is 700km thick. Now, consider this calculation:
where ϕ is the golden section number. This proves to be an evidence for the validity of the fractal hypothesis.
A lower viscosity layer
The upper mantle, immediately under the crust, is the lithospheric mantle and together with the crust makes the lithosphere. A little deeper there is the asthenosphere, a lower viscosity layer. Here we have a partial fusion of the mantle where pressures are lower due to surface cracks. Generally, the asthenosphere behaves plastically when it is subject to continuous mechanical stress. This plasticity enables the relative motion of the tectonic plates. The asthenosphere makes it possible the horizontal but also the vertical movements of the continental plates.
Mechanical and chemical characteristics of the mantle
Mantle is different from the crust, due to its mechanical and chemical characteristics. Mantle rocks shallower than about 410 km (250 mi) depth consists mostly of olivine, pyroxenes, spinel-structure minerals, and garnet. Between about 400 km (250 mi) and 650 km (400 mi) depth, olivine is not stable and is replaced by high-pressure polymorphs with approximately the same composition: one polymorph is wadsleyite (also called beta-spinel type), and the other is ringwoodite (a mineral with the gamma-spinel structure).
Below about 650 km (400 mi), all of the minerals of the upper mantle begin to become unstable. The most abundant minerals present, the silicate perovskites, have structures (but not compositions) like that of the mineral perovskite followed by the magnesium/iron oxide ferropericlase. The changes in mineralogy at about 400 and 650 km (250 and 400 mi) yield distinctive signatures in seismic records of the Earth’s interior, and like the moho, are readily detected using seismic waves.
A few considerations of structural order: pillars are necessary
Scientists postulate that the presence of iron in the mantle is in average 5,8%. This helps you to understand that the mantle doesn’t play an active role in the formation of the magnetic field of the Earth.
There are, however, other considerations of structural order to make. Under the mantle, we have the deep extension of the abyss: an enormous camera filled with waters, responsible for the magnetic field. This camera extends from one side to the other of the Earth with only a column in the center. It constitutes the tunnel through which the waters of above moving the dome turbine flow. The mantle is for true a 3000 km thick but it is not made of reinforced concrete. It is only rocks, very resistant to compression but not to traction or bending like in this case. A shell like this would not resist a long time if not sustained by pillars.
Giving evidence for the existence of the pillars
Do we have evidence for the existence of these pillars? You could guess it is there when examining the shape of the magnetic field.
You can guess the presence of pillars when considering the image of the whole magnetic field. It is red where it is more intense and blue where it is weaker. There is a very large blue zone having a center in the south Atlantic. They call it South Atlantic magnetic anomaly. Such a blue zone, as you can see, wraps the entire planet at that southern latitudes. Below this blue zone, there are eight pillars equally distributed under the mantle. They sustain the mantle but block all around those areas the movement of the waters. This movement is responsible for the magnetic field. In my next article, I will try to explain better such a mechanism.