# Quantum physics dismantled

Articolo N. 136

“Natura abhorret vacuum”, this was an ancient saying. Accordingly, in one of my previous articles, I have introduced the ether, made of etherons. Ether has consequently a discrete nature, being the etherons the minimum unity that constitute it.

###### Classical versus quantum physics

In this article I want to discuss the way quantum physics tries to formulate some extensive and complete description of the light phenomena. Classical physics states that particles are particles,  waves are waves, and the two shall never mix. Particles can be described by their mass m and by their energy E. Waves can be described by their amplitude A and by  the addition of a factor. Classical physics is therefore perfectly able to describe an acoustic longitudinal wave propagating in a steel bar or a mechanic transversal wave propagating in the water or in a whatever other mean.

Reality described by the quantum physics is different: particles behave like waves and vice versa. This is the fundamental  idea that since the beginning was at the basis of the quantum physics.

###### Newton versus Huyghens

The first one to assert that light has a particle nature was Newton.  Huyghens, on the other hand, was sustaining that light has a wave nature. One of the greatest ideas of quantum mechanics has been the quantization of light, i.e., to measure quantities in a discrete way. Let’s stop a while on this idea and  reason  on what I  have already mentioned about the ether.

###### The etherons activity

I wrote the ether is formed by etherons that are motionless and unlit. At the very moment when a vibration moves a quantity of etherons, they begin to oscillate generating a wave, and they light up if the vibration has a frequency in the visible field. I could even suppose  they produce sounds if the vibration has  the frequency in the acoustic range. The wave propagates as a mechanical entity, without transportation of mass or transportation of etherons. They only vibrate in their position longitudinally or transversally.

###### A new insight into the particle and wave phenomena

Let’s prove whether it would be possible, on the basis of this new point of view, to explain the different phenomena underlying the particle interpretation and those that underlie the wave interpretation.

Reflection, refraction, interference are explainable with the wave theory. In these cases the light behaves perfectly as a wave. This is readily explainable in our ether theory on the basis of the simple propagation of the wave. The wave propagates in the ether and, when encountering an obstacle, it reflects or refracts or interferes with another wave.

Phenomena in which light behaves as a particle are a little more difficult to explain. These are the photoelectric effect, the Compton Effect, and the Dirac production of pairs. How can you explain these effects? These are simply particle collisions. The etheron has probably no mass but has however a momentum that has to be considered as constant in an impact with an electron.

###### The photoelectric effect

The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material. Electrons emitted in this manner can be called photo electrons. This phenomenon is commonly studied in electronic physics, as well as in fields of chemistry, such as quantum chemistry or electrochemistry.

According to classical electromagnetic theory, this effect can be attributed to the transfer of energy from the light to an electron. From this perspective, an alteration in the intensity of light would induce changes in the kinetic energy of the electrons emitted from the metal. Furthermore, according to this theory, a sufficiently dim light would be expected to show a time lag between the initial shining of its light and the subsequent emission of an electron. However, the experimental results did not correlate with either of the two predictions made by classical theory.

Instead, electrons are dislodged only by the impingement of photons when those photons reach or exceed a threshold frequency (energy). Below that threshold, no electrons are emitted from the material regardless of the light intensity or the length of time of exposure to the light (rarely, an electron will escape by absorbing two or more quanta. However, this is extremely rare because by the time it absorbs enough quanta to escape, the electron will probably have emitted the rest of the quanta.). To make sense of the fact that light can eject electrons even if its intensity is low, Albert Einstein proposed that a beam of light is not a wave propagating through space, but rather a collection of discrete wave packets (photons), each with energy hν. This shed light on Max Planck‘s previous discovery of the Planck relation (E = hν) linking energy (E) and frequency (ν) as arising from quantization of energy. The factor h is known as the Planck constant.

###### The photoelectric effect: an etheron and an electron on a collision course

How can you explain this effect in a different way according to the newly posited ether theory?

A light wave propagates toward the metallic surface. While in motion, it puts in vibration the surrounding etherons. When an etheron,  in the nearest metal surface proximity, starts  vibrating, it happens to hit a free electron on the surface. If the etheron has enough energy from the wave (E=h*f) , it can transfer to the electron the quantum of energy needed to free the electron. If the frequency is low the energy will not be enough to move the electron, it doesn’t matter how great the intensity of light could be. In conclusion, in this case too, we can’t say that the light is behaving like a particle: it behaves like always, but the phenomenon is simply an impact of an etheron with an electron.

###### The Compton Effect

Let’s try to explain the Compton Effect. This is another of the many so believed  particle phenomena that should be explained in a way similar to the one just followed for the photoelectric  effect.

In this image, which I have taken from Wikipedia, you can see an emission of X rays (the so called photon) moving with the speed of light (and represented in the picture as a blue longitudinal wave) while hitting an electron. The electron moves away with a scattering angle derived by the conservation of the total momentum. As a result the so called “photon” is scattered away with less energy ( a part of the energy is transmitted to the electron) and therefore  this means a minor frequency. In fact the “photon”( in the new conceptual framework I would say the ” etheron”) , is represented in the picture with a red wave, that is to say, a radiation with a bigger wave length and less energy (E=h*f).

This is the actual situation: the blue wave, and not the particles, are moving toward the electron. The wave is a high energy one and during its movement it puts in vibration all the etherons. When the wave gets into collision with the electron, also the nearest etheron starts to vibrate and hits the electron with the energy transported by the wave.

###### Quantum physics dismantled

The electron moves away with an angle that can be calculated by  keeping in mind the conservation of the total momentum and energy. The wave loses part of its energy (given to the electron) and turns thus to the frequency of red. The impact is therefore an impact between particles, while the scattering characterizes the wave. Classic physics is actually the only mean able to explain everything.  And this is quite surprising!

###### Production of pairs

Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle from a neutral boson. Examples include creating an electron and a positron, a muon and an antimuon, or a proton and an antiproton. Pair production often refers specifically to a photon creating an electron-positron pair near a nucleus. In order for pair production to occur, the incoming energy of the interaction must be above a threshold in order to create the pair – at least the total rest mass energy of the two particles – and that the situation allows both energy and momentum to be conserved. However, all other conserved quantum numbers (angular momentumelectric chargelepton number) of the produced particles must sum to zero – thus the created particles shall have opposite values of each other. For instance, if one particle has electric charge of +1 the other must have electric charge of −1, or if one particle has strangeness of +1 then another one must have strangeness of −1.

The probability of pair production in photon-matter interactions increases with photon energy and also increases approximately as the square of atomic number of the nearby atom.(Wikipedia)

###### Photon to electron and positron

For photons with high photon energy (MeV scale and higher), pair production is the dominant mode of photon interaction with matter. These interactions were first observed in Patrick Blackett‘s counter-controlled cloud chamber, leading to the 1948 Nobel Prize in Physics. If the photon is near an atomic nucleus, the energy of a photon can be converted into an electron-positron pair:

γ
→
e−
+
e+

The photon’s energy is converted to particle’s mass in accordance with Einstein’s equation, E=mc2; where E is energym is mass and c is the speed of light. The photon must have higher energy than the sum of the rest mass energies of an electron and positron (2 × 0.511 MeV = 1.022 MeV) for the production to occur. The photon must be near a nucleus in order to satisfy conservation of momentum, as an electron-positron pair producing in free space cannot both satisfy conservation of energy and momentum. Because of this, when pair production occurs, the atomic nucleus receives some recoil. The reverse of this process is electron positron annihilation.

In this case a gamma ray having a very high energy and  impacting a nucleus, can have an anelastic behavior, i.e., the total amount of energy doesn’t conserve but creates particles with mass that can be electrons and positrons or protons and antiprotons with a higher level of energy or neutrons and antineutrons… The impact of the etheron can thus  produce matter as foreseen by Einstein’s equation E=mc2 . The wave loses its energy and scatters to minor levels of frequency ,often in the field of blue. (Cerenkov effect).

###### Conclusion

Quantum physics went into existence because physicists had to find a way to explain the fact that radiations transmit energy in a discrete quantized way. They were forced to postulate that the light is a wave that in some situation behaves like a particle. The problem arose from the insane Einstein’s idea of removing the ether from science as a consequence of his special relativity. However, I am here making it clear that the entire problem can be solved by reintroducing the ether. Particles of the ether, the etherons, are the particle receptive side of the light; the wave transmitted through the ether due to the oscillation of the etherons is the wave character of light. This is a totally classical interpretation of the nature of electromagnetic phenomena.